It has been prized for its medicinal properties for thousands of years.
Here are 10 health benefits of cinnamon that are supported by scientific research.
It has been used as an ingredient throughout history, dating back as far as Ancient Egypt. It used to be rare and valuable and was regarded as a gift fit for kings.
These days, cinnamon is cheap, available in every supermarket and found as an ingredient in various foods and recipes.
There are two main types of cinnamon:
- Ceylon cinnamon: Also known as "true" cinnamon.
- Cassia cinnamon: The more common variety today and what people generally refer to as "cinnamon."
Cinnamon is made by cutting the stems of cinnamon trees. The inner bark is then extracted and the woody parts removed.
When it dries, it forms strips that curl into rolls, called cinnamon sticks. These sticks can be ground to form cinnamon powder.
The distinct smell and flavor of cinnamon are due to the oily part, which is very high in the compound cinnamaldehyde.
Scientists believe that this compound is responsible for most of cinnamon's powerful effects on health and metabolism.
SUMMARY: Cinnamon is a popular spice. It’s high in cinnamaldehyde, which is thought to be responsible for most of cinnamon’s health benefits.
Antioxidants protect your body from oxidative damage caused by free radicals.
Cinnamon is loaded with powerful antioxidants, such as polyphenols.
In a study that compared the antioxidant activity of 26 spices, Cinnamon wound up as the clear winner, even outranking "superfoods" like garlic and oregano.
In fact, it is so powerful that cinnamon can be used as a natural food preservative.
SUMMARY: Cinnamon contains large amounts of highly potent polyphenol antioxidants.
Inflammation is incredibly important.
It helps your body fight infections and repair tissue damage.
However, inflammation can become a problem when it’s chronic and directed against your body's own tissues.
Cinnamon may be useful in this regard. Studies show that this spice and its antioxidants have potent anti-inflammatory properties.
SUMMARY: The antioxidants in cinnamon have anti-inflammatory effects, which may help lower your risk of disease.
Cinnamon has been linked to a reduced risk of heart disease, the world's most common cause of premature death.
In people with type 2 diabetes, 1 gram or about half a teaspoon of cinnamon per day has been shown to have beneficial effects on blood markers.
It reduces levels of total cholesterol, “bad” LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while “good” HDL cholesterol remains stable.
More recently, a big review study concluded that a cinnamon dose of just 120 mg per day can have these effects. In this study, cinnamon also increased “good” HDL cholesterol levels.
When combined, all these factors may drastically cut your risk of heart disease.
SUMMARY: Cinnamon may improve some key risk factors for heart disease, including cholesterol, triglycerides and blood pressure.
Insulin is one of the key hormones that regulate metabolism and energy use.
It’s also essential for transporting blood sugar from your bloodstream to your cells.
The problem is that many people are resistant to the effects of insulin.
This is known as insulin resistance, a hallmark of serious conditions like metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.
The good news is that cinnamon can dramatically reduce insulin resistance, helping this important hormone do its job.
By increasing insulin sensitivity, cinnamon can lower blood sugar levels, as discussed in the next chapter.
SUMMARY: Cinnamon has been shown to significantly increase sensitivity to the hormone insulin.
Cinnamon is well known for its blood-sugar-lowering properties.
Apart from the beneficial effects on insulin resistance, cinnamon can lower blood sugar by several other mechanisms.
First, cinnamon has been shown to decrease the amount of glucose that enters your bloodstream after a meal.
It does this by interfering with numerous digestive enzymes, which slows the breakdown of carbohydrates in your digestive tract.
Second, a compound in cinnamon can act on cells by mimicking insulin.
This greatly improves glucose uptake by your cells, though it acts much slower than insulin itself.
Numerous human studies have confirmed the anti-diabetic effects of cinnamon, showing that it can lower fasting blood sugar levels by 10–29%.
The effective dose is typically 1–6 grams or around 0.5–2 teaspoons of cinnamon per day.
SUMMARY: Cinnamon has been shown to reduce fasting blood sugar levels, having a potent anti-diabetic effect at 1–6 grams or 0.5–2 teaspoons per day.
Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by progressive loss of the structure or function of brain cells.
Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are two of the most common types.
Two compounds found in cinnamon appear to inhibit the buildup of a protein called tau in the brain, which is one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.
SUMMARY: Cinnamon has been shown to lead to various improvements for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease in animal studies. However, human research is lacking.
Cancer is a serious disease, characterized by uncontrolled cell growth.
Cinnamon has been widely studied for its potential use in cancer prevention and treatment.
Overall, the evidence is limited to test-tube and animal studies, which suggest that cinnamon extracts may protect against cancer.
It acts by reducing the growth of cancer cells and the formation of blood vessels in tumors and appears to be toxic to cancer cells, causing cell death.
These findings were supported by test-tube experiments, which showed that cinnamon activates protective antioxidant responses in human colon cells.
Whether cinnamon has any effect in living, breathing humans needs to be confirmed in controlled studies.
SUMMARY: Animal and test-tube studies indicate that cinnamon may have protective effects against cancer.
Cinnamaldehyde, one of the main active components of cinnamon, may help fight various kinds of infection.
Cinnamon oil has been shown to effectively treat respiratory tract infections caused by fungi.
It can also inhibit the growth of certain bacteria, including Listeria and Salmonella.
However, the evidence is limited and so far cinnamon has not been shown to reduce infections elsewhere in the body.
The antimicrobial effects of cinnamon may also help prevent tooth decay and reduce bad breath.
SUMMARY: Cinnamaldehyde has antifungal and antibacterial properties, which may reduce infections and help fight tooth decay and bad breath.
HIV is a virus that slowly breaks down your immune system, which can eventually lead to AIDS, if untreated.
Cinnamon extracted from Cassia varieties is thought to help fight against HIV-1, the most common strain of the HIV virus in humans.
A laboratory study looking at HIV-infected cells found that cinnamon was the most effective treatment of all 69 medicinal plants studied.
Human trials are needed to confirm these effects.
SUMMARY: Test-tube studies have shown that cinnamon can help fight HIV-1, the main type of HIV virus in humans.